Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that aims to reconstruct or repair the parts of the human body through medical operations. Plastic surgery, comes from the Greek, namely “plastikos” which means “form” or “give form”. Science itself is a branch of surgery that aims to restore form and function is normal and “perfect” shape with the proportion of “better”. The type of plastic surgery is generally divided into two types: surgery for reconstruction and surgery for cosmetic (Aesthetic). What distinguishes surgery
Reconstruction and Aesthetic is of purpose surgical procedure itself. In reconstructive surgery endeavored to restore the shape / appearance and function better or more humane least closer to normal conditions. In aesthetic surgery, surgery is performed in patients with normal (healthy), but according to the norm of less harmonic body shape (eg, short nose), it is expected that through aesthetic plastic surgery got a near-perfect body shape. Melania Trump Plastic Surgery
Plastic surgery seems like the modern technology and the trend in this period, and many people do not realize that this surgery has evolved over the centuries of human life on earth. Plastic surgery was first performed at the beginning of the 8th century BC. At that time, the old Indian doctor started to implement the use of skin grafts to reconstruct human skin spots. Susrutha is a surgeon famous ancient India. He was the first physician nerhasil complete the construction of the nose. To complete this operation, it uses some of the skin of the forehead.
Some time later, the Romans began to carry out plastic surgery. Dr. Heinrich von Pfolspeundt using skin grafts from the back of the arm to help the healing in Europe. However, the practice of plastic surgery is not a common practice until the 19th and 20th centuries.
A US doctor, Dr. John Peter Mettauer known as America’s first plastic surgeon. His first operation occurred in 1827. This surgery is performed on the palate.
Despite the large contribution, but that is considered the “Father of Modern Plastic Surgery” is Sir Harold Gillies. Sir Gillies developed a variety of other techniques in the development of plastic surgery. The emphasis is to help people whose faces have been damaged in World War I.
Plastic Surgery in Indonesia was pioneered by Prof. Moenadjat Wiratmadja. Having graduated as a surgeon from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia in 1958, he continued his plastic surgery training at Washington University / Barnes Hospital in the United States until 1959. On his return from abroad, he began specializing in providing services to general and plastic surgery education student and assistant surgeon at the Faculty of medicine / RSCM. In 1979 he was confirmed as a professor of medicine at the School of Medicine. Professor Moenadjat Wiratmadja died in 1980.
There are two kinds of plastic surgery:
- Operation without any element of intent
The point is an operation performed only for the treatment of disgrace (defects) that there dibadan, either because of a defect from birth (congenital) like cleft lips, fingers or toes were excessive, and the latter can be caused by a disease that eventually turns most of limbs, as a result of leprosy / leprosy, tuberculosis, or due to burns on the face due to a hot water bath
- Operation deliberate
The point is not operating due to a congenital disease (derivative) or by accident, but on his own to add to the beauty and beautify themselves.
This operation is diverse, but I only wrote the outline only, which is divided into two, and each section has a respective law:
- Operation limbs
Among them are ear surgery, chin, nose, stomach, breast, butt (sorry) with the plus, minus or disposed of, with the desire to look beautiful.
- operation rejuvenescent
As for the second part of this operation is reserved for those who are old, with an interesting wrinkles on the face, arms, buttocks, arms, or eyebrows.
Examples of plastic surgery are as follows:
Butt Implant is o of Cooperatives enhancer buttock size. Magnifying material such as silicone or saline infiltrated the gluteal muscle. However, this operation besides producing unnatural form, also the risk is very high. The reason for butt every time always occupied, so the risk of silicone / saline to rupture is high. In addition to rupture, another risk is the possibility of silicone / saline them to shift to other places because it is often occupied.
- Lip Implant
Operation thicken the lips, the silicone material and Gore-Tex. The result is a thick lip shape, very unnatural.
If not satisfied with the result then both these materials are very difficult to be removed because it is permanent. Since it was difficult to fix the cost is very expensive, not to mention the risk of injuries and damaged lips.
- Buccal fat pads removal
Appointment pockets of fat on the cheeks to the impression of a sharp cheekbones / high. As age increases so naturally the face will take care of. If you do this operation, then the long run will seem very sunken face, and until now there is no way to restore it to the cheek fat.
- Surgery Breast (Breast Augmentation / Reduction)
To increase or decrease the breast. In breast augmentation surgery (breast augmentation), the doctor will put implants filled silicon or collagen. To minimize the breast (breast reduction) , your doctor will reduce the amount of breast tissue, fat and excess skin.
- Nose(Nose Reshaping)
Such as breast surgery, rhinoplasty can reduce or minimize the size of the nose. To make the nose appear sharp, the doctor will put the implant in the form of solid silicon to form the nasal bone. A nose that is too large can be deflated by removing excess fatty tissue.
- Operation Eyelid (Eyelid Surgery / Blepharoplasty)
This operation is performed by removing fat, tissue and excess skin located around the eyes. Also, by correcting the shape of the upper eyelid, so that the eyes appear wider.
- Liposuction (lipoplasty / liposuction)
Excess fat sucked out of the body by using a tool called a cannula . Lipsuction can be done in various parts of the body, from the face, neck, abdomen, thighs, and so on. The amount of fat that can be issued is determined by the beginning of the patient’s body size.
- Streamline Stomach (Tummy Tuck)
This type of surgery is done to streamline, tighten and smooth the surface of the stomach. The way to remove fat and excess skin that is contained in the abdominal area. Tummy tuck is also done to tighten the abdominal muscles. For the sake of time efficiency and reduce costs, many women do a tummy tuck along with the operation caesarean .
- Injectable Botulinum Toxin
Useful for removing wrinkles on the face. How to inject a substance called Botulinum Toxin into the body. Botulinum Toxin can also be used to shrink the muscle, in this case refine the shape of the jaw, as well as streamline the calf. Effects Botulinum Toxin usually last for 4-6 months
- CheekkImplant This operation is useful to add high cheekbones. For most people, high cheekbones like a supermodel would add value to the beauty in her. This operation is performed by inserting the silicon through the oral cavity. Or chubby chubby cheeks also can be removed by sucking fat in the cheek and tightens muscles
As quoted from CBSNews Dr. Anthony Youn, a cosmetic surgeon in Troy, Michigan said there are 8 pins plastic surgery, namely:
- Have a face ‘looks bad’
If earlier about a man looks good, then suddenly has a face like an angry then it is possible that as a result of Botox. Botox injections in the forehead can distort eyebrows, Dr. Youn call with a face ‘look bad’. This can be corrected by injections again above the eyebrows.
- Does not have sagging skin despite the age of 60 years
Dr. Youn said that almost everyone over the age of 60 have some sagging skin or skin in the upper eyelid tucks. So if there are people whose eyes can be closed and opened with a wide, then the chances he had to do plastic surgery.
- As there are raisins in the ear
During the face lift operation (tightening of the face), sometimes the surgeon releases the ears of the face and pull the skin tight and then reattach the ear leaf. If not done properly, then there will be little wrinkles like a raisin in the ear. Need surgery to fix it back.
- Such as swollen face
Although it is rare, but there are some people who look younger but have a swollen face as the wind filled. This condition could result inject too much fat, so it must be treated by liposuction.
- Has a nose like a rabbit
When someone smiles and her nose looks like a rabbit, there is a possibility he injects Botox into the bridge of the nose. It is to get rid of the odd shape or form mengisut of the nose.
- Does not have a neck like a turkey
Someone who is aged over 50 years, almost all of them have skin like a gobbler neck in neck. So if he does not have it, she may have had plastic surgery.
- It has a shape like pouting lips
Usually the lower lip someone greater than 50 percent compared to the upper lip. So if there is someone who seems to have the upper lip is larger, there may be a variation of the results of silicone injections.
- Look to the ears
Try whispering and observe his ear, because there is no facial plastic surgery that does not leave a scar on the ear. Sometimes the skin of the ear transition is evident or there is a thickened skin due to scars.
Impact of Plastic Surgery
Here is a positive impact or benefits of plastic surgery , whether cosmetic surgery or reconstruction.
- The most obvious benefit of plastic surgery is to improve the appearance. Thus indirectly can improve self-confidence and a better body image.
- Plastic surgery can support a person’s career, which looks into the main beam. The benefits of plastic surgery is felt by the celebrities in the running career. Examples such as Krisdayati doing repair surgery or rhinoplasty nose shape, Titi DJ who perform liposuction or liposuction, Melly gloeslow who also perform liposuction and many other Indonesian artists.
- Plastic surgery can also be very useful for those who have health problems that may interfere with their performance. For example, someone with breasts that are too large often experience tremendous pain, so do the breast reduction plastic surgery to address the problem of appearance and health. Or breast reconstruction performed on patients suffering from breast cancer.
While the negative impact of plastic surgery, among others, as follows:
- Operating costs are usually expensive and can not be passed on to health insurance. As for the procedure liposuction , one patient had to pay around Rp. 20.000.000, – or surgical facelift around Rp. 10.000.000, –
- Sometimes the results are not operating in accordance with the desired patient. This is often a problem between the expectations that are not comparable with the skill of a surgeon. Expect realistic results is a significant weakness of this operation.
- This operation has the potential for complications. Risks or complications depending on the type of surgery performed. Such as breast augmentation, complications of bleeding, leaking implants. Depigmentation risky liposuction surgery, numbness, bruising, pain, and many more other complications.
Viewpoint Religion, Ethics and Freedom Regarding Plastic Surgery
Plastic surgery in Arabic is called jirahah at-tajmil is surgery to improve the appearance of one member body that appears, or to improve function, when the limb was reduced, missing / loose, or damaged.
Legal plastic surgery there are permissible and is to be rejected. Permissible plastic surgery is aimed to correct birth defects such as cleft lip, or defects that come later due to accidents, fires, or any similar, like a face damaged by fire / accident.
Plastic surgery to correct such defects of this law is permissible, based on the generality of the proposition that advocates for treatment ( al-tadawiy). The Prophet said, “It is not God sent down a disease, but God also lowering medicine .” (Bukhari, no.5246). The Prophet SAW said anyway, ” O servants of Allah Berobatlah you, God does not bring down the disease , but also lowers the cure .” (Tirmidhi, no.1961).
Treatment (plastic surgery) this kind can sometimes be obligatory, which, if allowed to continue would lead to death, then it is obligatory for him to medication could.
Allah says, which means (wallahu knows best), “and do your own hands into destruction” And in another verse says, “O ye who believe, do not eat each other neighbor’s property by way of vanity, except with prevailing commercial street with the same love-love between you. and do not kill yourselves. Allah is Merciful to you “
The above verse shows that Allah SWT. prohibit his servant forego damage (disease) in him. This operation can not be said to change God’s creation on purpose, because this operation for the treatment, although in the end became more beautiful, or beautiful in itself
As for plastic surgery that is forbidden, is aimed solely to beautify or embellish the face or body, without any intent to treat or correct a defect. For example, surgery to beautify the shape of the nose, chin, breasts, or surgery to remove wrinkles on the face of old signs, and so on.
Evidence recited Allah says (which means): ” and would I (Satan) told them (change the creation of Allah), then really they change it” . (Surat an-Nisaa`: 119). This verse comes as a condemnation of acts of Satan who always invites people to do all sorts of immoral acts, which are changing God’s creation. Plastic surgery to beautify themselves within the meaning of the creation of God, it is forbidden.
In addition, there is a hadith that the Prophet cursed the women who added false for beauty (Bukhari and Muslim). In this hadith there illat prohibited, such as to beautify. Imam Nawawi said, “In this hadith there is a signal that illegal is being done to find beauty. As if that is required for treatment or because of defects in teeth, then it’s okay.” Therefore, plastic surgery to beautify themselves forbidden.
Some of the reasons that led diharmkannya plastic surgery are as follows:
- a) Plastic surgery is changing the creation of Allah
- b) The presence of forgery and fraud
- c) On the other hand, that the negative more than the benefits, because of the danger that will happen is very large if the operation failed, could cause damage to limbs and even death.
- d) Terms of cosmetic surgery is justified by Islam; have a need for health purposes solely and no other intentions; not from unclean objects / forbidden and doctoral recognized professionals who are experts in that field that the surgery will be successful without the risk, danger and harm.
Speaking about the ethics course can not be separated from morality, which concerns the rules of good and bad. Every community has a moral standard that basically serves to protect themselves both in the social environment as well as each individual. Every society has the right to do whatever he thinks is right, as well as in performing plastic surgery. Although the purpose of beauty, as long as within reasonable limits, it is fine. The definition of the limits of reasonableness is the result of plastic surgery was not for the purpose of pornography. The boundaries of the so-called pornography is actually still the pros and cons in the community.
People often think the definition of freedom is able to think and act without restraint. According to Rudolf Stener, there are 2 of the freedom of free will and responsible freedom. In the phenomenon of free will, moral authority no longer comes from the community, family aaaatau Bible but an individual heartstrings. Any decision to do one thing to rely on him. So in this case means that everyone is free to perform plastic surgery as long as he wills. Meanwhile, according to the theory of responsible freedom, perform plastic surgery allowed for risks arising from such operations can actually be accountable to himself and does not harm others. That is sgala sorts of bad risks are likely to occur readily accepted. In taking this decision, of course, also need to think a mature person, because it is responsible in this case is based authority beyond himself (regulations, ideologies and value of the group). In Indonesia there is no legislation that prohibits a person to perform plastic surgery.
In the process of plastic surgery always involves science, environment, technology and society. To produce an advanced technology that plastic surgery is used science as a process to find it. So in other words that science as a process and product, technology as an object that is used and the community as a subject. While the environment is a means of support in doing plastic surgery. Higinies environment is one of the main factors determining the success of plastic surgery.
Everyone who perform plastic surgery especially cosmetic surgery aims to beautify themselves. But one thing we need to know that the true definition of beauty is the beauty of the inside of the so-called Innerbeauty . Someone who perform plastic surgery for that purpose is often labeled as people who are not grateful for the gift of the creator.